Dwi Warry Octaviana


Attitudinal factors that relate to second language acquisition will perform one or both of two functions. First, they will be factors that encourage intake. They are simply factors that encourage the learners to communicate with speakers of the target language, and thereby obtain the necessary input, or intake, for language acquisition. Second, attitudinal factors relating to acquisition will enable the learners to utilize the language heard for acquisition. Simply hearing a second language with understanding appears to be necessary but it is not sufficient for acquisition to take place. The learners must not only understand the input but must also, in a sense, be open to it. The following of attitudinal factors that relate posited predictors of second language proficiency to those two functions are integrative motivation and instrumental motivation. The presence of integrative motivation should encourage the learners to interact with speakers of the second language out of sheer interest, and thereby obtain intake. Meanwhile, instrumental motivation will encourage the learners to interact with second language speakers in order to achieve certain ends.


Attitudinal Factors, English, Second Language Acquisition

Full Text:



Al-Daihani, H. A., Al-Yaman, A., and Almutairi, A. S. (2016). Review of Factors Affecting Second Language Learning. International Journal of Education, Learning and Development Vol. 4, No. 2, pp. 26-34, March 2016.

Aliakbari, M. & Ahmadi, S. (2014). English Learning Motivation: The Case Study of Female Students in Ilam, Iran. International Journal of Psychology and Behavioral Research, Vol. 3 (6), p. 476-484.

Alizadeh, M. (2016). The Impact of Motivation on English Language Learning. International Journal of Research in English Education, Vol. 1, No. 1, p. 11-15.

Alsayed, M. (2003). Factors that Contribute to Success in Learning English as a Foreign Language. Damascus University Journal, Vol. 19, No. 1+2, p. 21-24.

Atchade, M. P. (2002). The Impact of Learners’ Attitudes on Second or Foreign Language Learning. Sciences Sociales et Humaines, Serie B, Volume 004, 2002.

Bialystok, E. & Frohlich, M. (1977). Aspects of Second Language Learning in Classroom Settings. Working Papers on Bilingualism 13:1-26.

Brown, H. D. (2000). Principles of Language Learning and Teaching. Fourth Edition. Englewood Cliffs NJ: Prentice-Hall.

Brown, H. D. (2008). Principles of Language Learning and Teaching, fifth edition. White Plains, NY: Pearson Education Inc.

Carreira, J. M. (2005). New Framework of Intrinsic/Extrinsic and Integrative/Instrumental Motivation in Second Language Acquisition. The Kelai Journal of International Studies, No. 16, p. 39-64, December 2015.

Chalak, A. & Kassaian, Z. (2010). Motivation and Attitudes of Iranian Undergraduate EFL Students towards Learning English. GEMA Online Journal of Language Studies Volume 10 (2), 2010.

Chen, Q. (2011). A Brief Analysis of Psychological Factors in SLA. Psychology Research 02, p. 36-38, 2011.

Crookes, G. & Schmidt, R. (1991). Motivation: Reopening the Research Agenda. Language Learning, 41 (4), 469-512.

Coskun, L. (2014). Investigating the Essential Factors on Students Motivation through Comparing Boys and Girls in Terms of Instrumental & Integrative Motivation in EFL Classrooms. Journal of Education and Social Research, Vol. 4, No. 2, April 2014, pp. 150-156.

Ellis, R. (1994). The Study of Second Language Acquisition. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Engin, A. O. (2009). Second Language Learning Success and Motivation. Social Behavior and Personality, 2009, 37 (8), 1035-1042.

Gass, S. M. & Selinker, L. (2008). Second Language Acquisition: An Introductory Course. New York: Routledge.

Gardner, R. C. (1985). Social Psychology and Second Language Learning: The Role of Attitudes and Motivations. London: Edward Arnold.

Gardner, R. C. & Lambert, W. E. (1959). Motivational Variables in Second Language Acquisition. Canadian Journal of Psychology, 13, 266-272.

Gardner, R. C. & Lambert, W. E. (1972). Attitudes and Motivation in Second-Language Learning. Rowley, MA: Newbury House.

Gardner, R. C. & MacIntyre, P. D. (1991). An Instrumental Motivation in Language Study: Who Says It Isn’t Effective?. SSLA, 13, 57-72.

Gomari, H. & Lucas, R. I. (2013). Foreign Language Learning Motivation and Anxiety among Iranian Students in the Philippines. Philippine ESL Journal, Vol. 10, p. 148-178, February 2013.

Hamilton, R. P. (2001). The Significance of Learners’ Errors: Philosophical Investigation of the Interlanguage Hypothesis. Language and Communication, 21, 73-88.

Horwitz, E. K. (2001). Language Anxiety and Achievement. Annual Review of Applied Linguistics, 21, 112-126.

Krashen, S. D. (1988). Second Language Acquisition and Second Language Learning. New York. Prentice Hall.

Khodashenas, M. R., Amouzegar, E., Farahani, S. K., Hasheminasab, S. G. H. & Kazemian, V. (2013). Review Article: Role of Motivation in Language Learning. International Research Journal of Applied and Basic Sciences, Vol. 6 (6): 766-773.

Locastro, V. (2001). Individual Differences in Second Language Acquisition: Attitudes, Learner Subjectivity and Second Language. System, 29 (1), 69-89.

Lukmani, Y. M. (1972). Motivation to Learn and Language Proficiency. Language Learning Volume 22, Issue 2, p. 261-273.

Mahbudi, A. & Hosseini, A. (2014). An Analysis of Demotivating Factors Among Ethnic Minorities: A Case Study of Turk Language Learners. International Journal of Language Learning and Applied Linguistics World (IJLLALW), Vol. 6 (1), May 2014; 119-135.

Penjak, A. & Karnincic, H. (2015). Attitudes, Motivation, and Parental Encouragement in Learning English as a Foreign Language: the Croatian Context. Journal of Foreign Languages, Cultures, and Civilizations. December 2015, Vol. 3, No. 2, pp. 17-23.

Rashidi, N. & Mardi, F. J. (2012). The Effect of Gender and Different Levels of Education on the Relationship between Students’ Achievement Goal and Their Academic Achievement. Journal of English Language Teaching and Learning, No. 10, 2012, pp. 53-75.

Ross, A. S. (2015). From Motivation to Emotion: A New Chapter in Applied Linguistics Research. University of Sydney Papers in TESOL, 10, 1-27.

Schumann, F. M. (1978). Diary of a Language Learner: A Further Analysis in H. D. Brown (Ed.). A Study of Second Language Learning. New Jersey: Prentice Hall.

Schunk, D. H., Pintrich, P. R, & Meece, J. L. (2008). Motivation in Education: Theory, Research, and Applications (third edition). Upper Saddle River, N.J.: Pearson/Merrill Prentice Hall.

Skehan, P. (1989). Individual Differences in Second-Language Learning. London: Edward Arnold.

Tahaineh, Y. & Daana, H. (2013). Jordanian Undergraduates’ Motivations and Attitudes towards Learning English in EFL Context. International Review of Social and Humanities, Vol. 4, No. 2 (2013), pp. 159-180.

Titone, R. & Danesi, M. (1985). Applied Psycholinguistics: An Introduction to the Psychology of Language Learning and Teaching. Toronto: University of Toronto Press.

Ushida, E. (2005). The Role of Students’ Attitudes and Motivation in Secong Language Learning in Online Language Courses. CALICO Journal, 23 (1), p-p 49-78.

Ying, Z. (2017). A Research on the Relationship between the Freshmen’s English Learning Motivation and Achievements in a Chinese University. British Journal of Education, Society & Behavioural Science, 21 (1): 1-10, 2017.

Youssef, A. M. S. & Bose, H. (2015). Challenges in the Learning of English as a Foreign Language in Libyan High School. International Journal of English and Literature (IJEL) Vol. 5, Issue 1, Feb 2015, 17-22.




  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2018 EEAL Journal (English Education and Applied Linguistics Journal)

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

English Education and Applied Linguistics (EEAL) Journal is a scientific journal regularly published by Department of English Education, Institut Pendidikan Indonesia (Jl. Pahlawan No.32, Garut,Indonesia). EEAL Journal is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License. Copyright © Institut Pendidikan Indonesia-Garut.