JENIS KEKELIRUAN AKIBAT MENGHAFAL PROSEDUR RUTIN DALAM MELAKUKAN OPERASI PENJUMLAHAN DAN PENGURANGAN BILANGAN PECAHAN

Sri Imelda Edo

Abstract


Abstrak
Berdasarkan pengalaman penulis sebelumnya ketika mengajar matakuliah matematika dasar pada jurusan TPH Politani Kupang, mahasiswa selalu mengalami kesulitan dalam operasi bilangan pecahan. Karena itu pada saat proses pembelajaran, pengajar terpaksa harus kembali memberikan penanaman konsep bilangan pecahan. Kondisi ini menarik perhatian penulis untuk mengidentifikasi jenis-jenis kekeliruan mahasiswa baru jurusan TPH Politani Kupang tahun 2015 dalam melakukan operasi penjumlahan dan pengurangan pecahan dan faktor penyebabnya. Proses investigasi ini dilakukan melalui metode penelitian kualitatif. Data dikumpulkan melalui tes tertulis dan wawancara. Hasilnya adalah; 5% mahasiswa langsung menjumlahkan bagian Pembilang dengan pembilang dan Penyebut dengan penyebut dari dua bilangan pecahan yang berbeda penyebut. 3% mahasiswa langsung menjumlahkan penyebut yang berbeda dari dua bilangan pecahan yang pembilangnya sama. 83% mahasiswa menyamakan penyebut dari bilangan pecahan dengan menggunakan KPK tetapi mereka lupa cara merubah pembilang apabila penyebutnya berubah. 5% mahasiswa menyelesaikan soal dengan menggunakan rumus, namun mereka menggunakan rumus operasi perkalian pada operasi pengurangan. Sisahnya 4% mahasiswa menjawab benar dengan cara menyamakan penyebut dengan menggunakan KPK. Sementara hasil wawancara menunjukan bahwa dominan mahasiswa merupakan tamatan SMK dan berasal dari kabupaten yang tersebar diseluruh wilayah propinsi NTT. Mereka hanya mengenal dua cara melakukan operasi pecahan yaitu menyamakan penyebut dengan KPK dan mengunakan rumus. Kedua cara ini memiliki algoritma baku yang harus mereka hafal. Mereka tidak memahami apapun dibalik langkah demi langkah dalam algoritma tersebut. Dengan demikian semua jenis kekeliruan di atas merupakan akibat dari menghafal prosedur rutin yang mereka pelajari pada jenjang pendidikan sebelumnya.

Abstract
Based on Authors experience when taught basic math course, in general students have found difficulty in operating fractions. Therefore, the goal of this research was to investigate student’s errors and misconception in addition and subtraction of fraction. Research conducted at Aqua Culture Technology, Agriculture industry technology study programs food Crops and horticulture Department of POLITANI Kupang on 2015. New students were the subjects of this study. This process is done through qualitative research methods. Data were collected through written tests and interviews. However, some students can solve formal operation given in common rule without any sense of its concept. The result were; 5% of the students added the numerator and denominator of the fractions directly even the denominators are different, 3% of students equate the numerator of fractions and then add them together. 83% of students equate the denominator of the fractions using least common multiple but they forget how to change the numerator of those fractions when their denominator was changed. 5% of students solved problems using the formula given by teacher, but they failed to remember it well. The rest 4% of students can solve the question correctly. While the interviews results showed that dominant students are graduates from Vocational high School and come from districts that are spread throughout the province of NTT. They only knew two ways in addition and subtraction of fractions i.e. equate denominators of fractions using least common multiple and using formula. Both of them has a standard algorithm that students have to memorized. They do not understand anything about step by step of the algorithm. Thus all kinds of errors was the effect of memorizing the routine procedures they learned in the previous education level.


Keywords


Operasi Pecahan; Miskonsepsi pecahan; penjumlahan pecahan; pengurangan pecahan; akibat menghafal rumus; Fractions operation; misconceptions of fractions; fractions addition; subtraction of fractions; memorize formulas in operate fraction

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References


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DOI: https://doi.org/10.31980/mosharafa.v5i3.278

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